We must understand the various learning theories to know which one to apply at the best time.
No two learners are alike. We all have different learning types.
No two learning situations are alike. Even the way a single learner learns could differ depending on the time of day, tools available, or specific tasks.
Our brains are all unique, and our experiences all contribute to the different ways we learn.
Our learning systems need to be dynamic and adjust for different learners in different situations using different tools.
- Cognitive Learning Theory – Build learning around how we think.
- Behaviorism Learning Theory – Build learning around our enviroment.
- Constructivism Learning Theory
- Humanism Learning Theory
- Connectivism Learning Theory
- Transformative Learning Theory
- Social Learning Theory
- Experiential Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory
Cognitive learning theory looks at the way the brain works to describe learning.
Cognitive Learning Theory says our learning is influenced by our cognitive processes. And our cognitive processes are influenced by internal factors (like how our brain is structured) and external factors (like our culture, language, and environment).
Cognitive learning is an active style of learning that focuses on helping you learn how to maximize your brain’s potential. It makes it easier for you to connect new information with existing ideas hence deepening your memory and retention capacity.
The ability of the brain’s mental processes to absorb and retain information through experience, senses, and thought is known as cognition.
The cognitive theory understands that both internal and external elements can influence learners.
Plato and Descartes are two of the first philosophers who focused on cognition and how we think.
Many other researchers looked deeper into how we think, spurring more research. Jean Piaget is a highly important figure in the field of cognitive psychology, and his work focuses on environments and internal structures and how they impact learning.
Cognitive theory has developed over time, breaking off into sub-theories that focus on unique elements of learning and understanding. At the most basic level, the cognitive theory suggests that internal thoughts and external forces are both an important part of the cognitive process. And as students understand how their thinking impacts their learning and behavior, they are able to have more control over it.
Cognitive learning theory impacts students because their understanding of their thought process can help them learn. Teachers can give students opportunities to ask questions, to fail, and think out loud. These strategies can help students understand how their thought process works, and utilize this knowledge to construct better learning opportunities.
Behaviorism Learning Theory
Behaviorism learning theory is the idea that how a student behaves is based on their interaction with their environment. It suggests that behaviors are influenced and learned from external forces rather than internal forces.
Psychologists have been developing the idea of behaviorism since the 19th century.
Behavioral learning theory is the basis for psychology that can be observed and quantified.
Positive reinforcement is a popular element of behaviorism—classical conditioning observed in Pavlov’s dog experiments suggests that behaviors are directly motivated by the reward that can be obtained.
Teachers can use positive reinforcement to help learners better learn a concept.
Learners who receive positive reinforcement are more likely to retain information moving forward, a direct result of the behaviorism theory.
Constructivism Learning Theory
Constructivism learning theory is based on the idea that learners create their own learning based on what they already know.
Constructivism is a learning theory that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding. It states that learners construct knowledge rather than just passively take in information.
Learners take what they’re learning and add it to their previous knowledge and experiences, creating a reality that’s unique to them.
This learning theory focuses on learning as an active process, which is personal and individual for each student.
Teachers can use constructivism to help understand that each student will bring their own past to the classroom every day.
Teachers in constructivist classrooms are more of a guide, assisting learners to create their own learning and understanding.
Teachers help learners create their own process and reality based on their own past.
This is crucial to helping many kinds of learning take their own experiences and include them in their learning.
Humanism Learning Theory
Humanism is very closely related to constructivism. Humanism directly focuses on the idea of self-actualization. Everyone functions under a hierarchy of needs. Self-actualization is at the top of the hierarchy of needs—it’s the brief moments where a person feels all of their needs are met and that they’re the best possible version of themselves. Everyone is striving for this, and learning environments can either move toward meeting needs or away from meeting needs.
Teachers can create classroom environments that help students get closer to their self-actualization. Educators can help fulfill students’ emotional and physical needs, giving them a safe and comfortable place to learn, plenty of food, and the support they need to succeed. This kind of environment is the most conducive to helping students learn.
Connectivism Learning Theory
Connectivism is one of the newest educational learning theories. It focuses on the idea that people learn and grow when they form connections. This can be connections with each other or connections with their roles and obligations in their lives. Hobbies, goals, and people can all be connections that influence learning.
Teachers can utilize connectivism in their classrooms to help students make connections to things that excite them, helping them learn. Teachers can use digital media to make good, positive connections to learning. They can help create connections and relationships with their students and with their peer groups to help students feel motivated about learning.
Transformative Learning Theory
Transformative learning theory is a great approach for adult education and young adult learning. Also referred to as transformation learning, transformative learning theory focuses on the idea that learners can adjust their thinking based on new information.
This learning theory was founded by Jack Mezirow, who discovered it after doing studies on adult women who went back to school. His initial research found that adults don’t apply their old understanding to new situations and that having a new perspective helped them gain a new understanding of things as they change. Mezirow also believed that students had important teaching and learning opportunities connected to their past experiences and that critical reflection and review could lead to a transformation of their understanding.
This approach works well for adult students, as children don’t have the same kind of transformation with their learning experiences—and with life experience. Adult students could draw on childhood experiences and transforming those beliefs and understandings using critical reflection, leading them to an understanding of what they should believe and understand as adults.
Overall, the theory states that our worldview is changed the more we learn, which helps us grasp new concepts and ideas. By getting new information that helps evaluate past ideas, students are able to make a dramatic educational shift beyond standard learning. Teachers can employ this learning theory by encouraging their students to learn new perspectives while questioning their assumptions and open the floor for discourse to cement their new train of thought.
Social Learning Theory
Using social learning theory can be a valuable tool for dealing with difficult students who like to disrupt the classroom and cause trouble. This theory focuses on the concept of children learning from observing others by acting on or not acting on what they see exhibited by their classmates. For example, they may see a classmate politely asking for a treat and getting one, or maybe they hear another classmate talking about something new they’ve learned, which teaches the student something new even if it’s not something they try themselves.
This learning theory was founded by Albert Bandura. He conducted an experiment called the Bobo doll experiment in the early ’60s, during which he studied children’s behavior after they watched an adult act aggressively with a doll-like toy. He noted how the children reacted when the adult got rewarded, punished, or suffered no consequences after they attacked the doll. Bandura wrote about his findings in 1977, detailing social learning theory and how it affected the behavioral development of students.
There are four elements to social learning theory:
- Attention, which calls upon different or unique lessons or activities to help children focus.
- Retention, focusing on how the student will internalize information and recall it later on.
- Reproduction, drawing on previously learned behavior and when it’s appropriate to use it.
- Motivation, which can extend from seeing other classmates being rewarded or punished for their actions.
By using social modeling based on these elements, teachers have a very powerful tool in their arsenal that can effectively guide their students to be more active in their learning, pay more attention, and channel their energy into their schooling.
Experiential Learning Theory
Experiential learning theory focuses on learning by doing. Using this theory, students are encouraged to learn through experiences that can help them retain information and recall facts.
Experiential learning theory, or ELT, was identified by David Kolb in 1984. Though his influence came from other theorists such as John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget, Kolb was able to identify four stages of ELT. The first two stages, concrete learning and reflective observation, focus on grasping an experience. The latter two, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation are about transforming an experience. To Kolb, effective learning is seen as the learner goes through the cycle of experiential learning theory. Students can enter the cycle in any way and at any point.
Some examples of this form of learning include taking students to the zoo to learn about animals instead of just reading about them or growing a garden to learn about photosynthesis instead of watching a video about it. By creating environments where students can learn and experience at the same time, teachers offer students the opportunity to immediately apply their knowledge and get real-world experiences. This approach also encourages teamwork and is shown to improve motivation.
How to Apply Learning Theories in Teaching
Teachers can create specific strategies and techniques to apply these learning theories in their classrooms. Teachers need to first focus on getting a well-rounded education to learn about all kinds of techniques for teaching and classroom management. Teachers need to understand learning theories to be prepared to utilize them in their classrooms.
An understanding of learning theories helps teachers connect to all different kinds of students. Teachers can focus on different learning styles to reach different students, creating teaching that focuses directly on student needs and aptitudes.